Foobar, Blossoms, and Isomorphism

A friend recently invited me to participate in Foobar, Google’s recruiting tool that lets you solve interesting (and sometimes not-so-interesting) programming problems. This particular problem, titled “Distract the Guards” was very fun to solve but I found no good write-ups about it online! Solutions exist but it is rather hard to understand how the author came upon the solution. I thought I might take a shot and go into detail into how I approached it–as well as give proofs of correctness as needed.

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psvsd: Custom Vita microSD card adapter

One thing I love about Vita hacking is the depth of it. After investing so much time reverse engineering the software and hardware, you think you would run out of things to hack. Each loose end leads to another month long project. This all started in the development of HENkaku Ensō. We wanted an easy way to print debug statements early in boot. UART was a good candidate because the device initialization is very simple and the protocol is standard. The Vita SoC (likely called Kermit internally as we’ll see later on) has seven UART ports. However, it is unlikely they are all hooked up on a retail console. After digging through the kernel code, I found that bbmc.skprx, the 3G modem driver contain references to UART. After a trusty FCC search, it turns out that the Vita’s 3G modem uses a mini-PCIe connector but with a custom pin layout and a custom form factor. The datasheet gives some useful description for each pin, and UART_KERMIT seemed like the most likely candidate (there’s also UART_SYSCON which is connected to the SCEI chip on the bottom of the board, which serves as a system controller and a UART_EXT which is not hooked up on the Vita side). So finding a debug output port was a success, but with the datasheet in front of me, the USB port caught my attention. Wouldn’t it be neat to put in a custom USB device?

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HENkaku Ensō bootloader hack for Vita

ensō When we (molecule) were reverse engineering the Vita’s firmware years ago, one of the first vulnerabilities we found was in the bootloader. It was a particularly attractive vulnerability because it was early in boot (before ASLR and some other security features are properly initialized) and because it allowed patching the kernel before it booted (which expands what can be done with hacks). Unfortunately, the exploit required writing to the MBR of the internal storage, which requires kernel privileges. That means we would have to exploit the kernel (à la HENkaku) in order to install the exploit. (Before you ask, no it is not possible to install with a hardware mod because each Vita encrypts its NAND with a unique key. Also, there are no testpoints for the NAND, so flashing it is notoriously difficult… not as simple as the 3DS.) So, we mostly forgot about this vulnerability until quite recently when we finally all had some free time and decided to exploit it.

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Modem Cloning for Fun (but NOT for profit!)

Recently, I stumbled upon an old cable modem sitting next to the dumpster. An neighbor just moved out and they threw away boxes of old junk. I was excited because the modem is much better than the one I currently use and has fancy features like built in 5GHz WiFi and DOCSIS 3.0 support. When I called my Internet service provider to activate it though, they told me that the modem was tied to another account likely because the neighbors did not deactivate the device before throwing it away. The technician doesn’t have access to their account so I would have to either wait for it to be inactive or somehow find them and somehow convince them to help me set up the modem they threw away.

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psvimgtools: Decrypt Vita Backups

The Vita’s Content Manager allows you to backup and restore games, saves, and system settings. These backups are encrypted (but not signed!) using a key derived in the F00D processor. While researching into F00D, xyz and Proxima stumbled upon a neat trick (proposed originally by plutoo) that lets you obtain this secret key and that has inspired me to write a set of tools to manipulate CMA backups. The upshot is that with these tools, you can modify backups for any Vita system including 3.63 and likely all future firmware. This does not mean you can run homebrew, but does enable certain tricks like disabling the PSTV whitelist or swapping X/O buttons.

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