Credits to egarrote from elotrolado.net for the logo!

Rejuvenate: Native homebrew for PSVita

(Sadly, they did not give me a spot at the Sony E3 conference, so I have to make do with this blog post.) I am excited to announce Rejuvenate, a native homebrew platform for PS Vita. The tools that will be released through the next couple of weeks will allow developers (not in contract with Sony) to develop and test games, apps, and more on the PS Vita. These unofficial software can run on any PS Vita handheld device without approval by Sony. These tools cannot enable pirated or backup games to run (I’m not just saying this… the exploits used does not have enough privilege to enable such tasks). Rejuvenate requires PlayStation Mobile Development Assistant to be installed on your Vita! Sony will remove this from PSN soon, so if you wish to ever run homebrew apps on your PS Vita, you must download this app now!

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Secure your eMMC devices!

Most of our embedded devices use eMMC, but security into eMMC (as far as I know) has not been extensively studied or taken account of in threat models. In the small sample of devices I’ve looked at, the ability to send raw commands to the eMMC only requires kernel access. If you look at the Android platform, kernel hacks are not uncommon and remote kernel hacks are also not a rarity. There are certain commands that a hacker can send which can permanently disable (brick) a device. Continue reading

Calling all coders: We need you to help create an open Vita SDK!

One of largest barrier to native PS Vita homebrew is the lack of an open toolchain and SDK. Essentially, we need something like pspsdk for the Vita. The reason why we don’t have it is because there are people who have an understanding of how the Vita’s executable format works but lack the time to code up the tools and there are people who have the time and ability to create such tools but lack the knowledge of Vita’s internals. The solution, I believe is to publish a comprehensive document detailing how the Vita’s executable format is laid out and the requirements for an open toolchain. Anyone with coding skills can now work on an open SDK; no Vita knowledge required! Continue reading

You Should Register for PSM

PlayStation Mobile (PSM) for those unaware is Sony’s platform for indie game developers. They have decided to start shutting down the service after May 31, 2015. Before then, I think it would be wise for everyone (not just game developers) to sign up for an account (it’s free!), set up the developer assistant on their Vita, and run at least one sample application. If you don’t try this platform out and see what it has to offer, you might regret it.

What you should do before June 2015:

  1. Sign in to the PSM DevPortal with your PSN account
  2. Click the button to “Apply for PSM Publisher License” and follow the directions
  3. After you get your license approved, download SDK 1.21.02 (NOT SDK 2.00.00 or Unity for PSM)
  4. Follow the directions to get the dev assistant for your Vita
  5. Once everything is installed, play with a demo! For example, BallMazeDemo is pretty fun. Before the demo will run though, you have to generate an app key. Refer to PSM’s documentations for that.

Opening Up CARDBOARD: Crafting an American New 3DS (non-XL)

Last time, I analyzed now update checks worked on the 3DS. That was a straightforward process. CARDBOARD (known colloquially as “System Transfer”) is a bundle of complexity with no less than three separate servers communicating with each other as well as the device. A custom proprietary protocol is used for 3DS to 3DS communication. Finally, we have multiple unique identifiers the console uses to identify itself with Nintendo (serial, certificates, console id, account id, etc). I can’t imagine this will be comprehensive, but I hope that whoever is reading can gain new insight on the complexity of the 3DS ecosystem. Continue reading

Reversing Gateway Ultra Stage 3: Owning ARM9 Kernel

First, some background: the 3DS has two main processors. Last time, I went over how Gateway Ultra exploited the ARM11 processor. However, most of the interesting (from a security perspective) functionalities are handled by a separate ARM946 processor. The ARM9 processor is in charge of the initial system bootup, some system services, and most importantly all the cryptographic functions such as encryption/decryption and signature/verification. In this post, we will look at how to run (privileged) code on the ARM9 processor with privileged access to the ARM11 processor. Please note that this writeup is a work in progress as I have not completely figured out how the exploit works (only the main parts of it). Specifically there are a couple of things that I do not know if it is done for the sake of the exploit or if it is done purely for stability or obfuscation. From a developer’s perspective, it doesn’t matter because as long as you perform all the steps, you will achieve code execution. But from a hacker’s perspective, the information is not complete unless all aspects are known and understood. I am posting this now as-is because I do not know when I’ll have time to work on the 3DS again. However, when I do, I will update the post and hopefully clear up all confusion. Continue reading

Reversing Gateway Ultra Stage 2: Owning ARM11 Kernel

It’s been a couple of days since my initial analysis of Gateway Ultra, released last week to enable piracy on 3DS. I spent most of this time catching up on the internals of the 3DS. I can’t thank the maintainers of 3dbrew enough (especially yellows8, the master of 3DS reversing) for the amount of detailed and technical knowledge found on the wiki. The first stage was a warmup and did not require any specific 3DS knowledge to reverse. The problem with the second stage is that while it is easy to see the exploit triggered and code to run, the actual exploit itself was not as clear. I looked at all the function calls made and made a couple of hypothesis of where the vulnerability resided, and reversed each function to the end to test my hypothesis. Although there was many dead ends and false leads, the process of reversing all these functions solidified my understanding of the system. Continue reading

Reversing Gateway Ultra First Stage (Part 2)

When we last left off, we looked at the ROP code that loaded a larger second-part of the payload. Now we will walk through what was loaded and how userland native code execution was achieved. I am still an amateur at 3DS hacking so I am sure to get some things wrong, so please post any corrections you have in the comments and I will update the post as needed. Continue reading

Reversing Gateway Ultra First Stage (Part 1)

And now for something completely different…

As a break from Vita hacking, I’ve decided to play around with the Nintendo 3DS exploit released by Gateway yesterday. The 3DS is a much easier console to hack, but unfortunately, the scene is dominated by a piracy company who, ironically, implement various “features” to protect their intellectual property (one such feature purposely bricks any user of a cloned piracy cart–and also “legitimate” users too). Ethics aside, it would be useful to reverse Gateway’s exploits and use them for homebrew loading so I took a quick look at it. The first stage of the exploit is an entry-point into the system that allows code to run in the unprivileged user-mode. It is usually used to exploit a kernel vulnerability, which is the second stage. In the unique case of Gateway, the first stage is broken up into two parts (in order for them to obfuscate their payload). I am only going to look at the first part for now. Continue reading